Textile Chemistry Research and Innovation Center
First elite center of excellence in textile chemistry in Africa
1. Background on Textile Chemistry Center of Research and Innovation
The center of research and innovation for textile chemistry (TC-RiC) is one of the research and innovation centers in Ethiopian Institute of Textile and Fashion Technology, EiTEX. The center is established in the year 2011 and is among the four pillar research and innovation centers in EiTEX.
As a research and innovation center under EiTEX, TC-RiC is concerned about professional and research development in the following core disciplines.
· Fibers and Polymeric Materials
· Production of Natural Fibers
· Man Made Fibers
· Textile Preparation
· Coloration Technology (Dyeing and Printing)
· Conventional and Advanced Textile Finishing
· Leather Processing
The center which is lead by a Director has four sub units or LRI (learning, research and implementation teams) and work for enhancement of quality teaching-learning, problem solving research and innovation tasks and transferable technology and other dissemination activities. These are:
· Fiber Science and Technology
· Pretreatment and Finishing Technology
· Leather Technology
· Textile Coloration Technology
As a purpose in meeting the vision of the institute as per nation demand the TC-RiC is launched among other development programs to excel in research, innovation and dissemination activities aimed at providing efficient support to the textile/leather industry, educational institutions and related sectors. The center is organized to provide well trained textile chemists and researchers/innovators to the market in the fields of textile/leather processing and fiber/polymer science and technology.
With this regard the TC-RiC is striving to support the stakeholders and the nation as a whole supplying transferable knowledge and skills through continuous and effective research and dissemination activities. On the spot at the ground the TC-RiC is engaged on ensuring quality teaching-learning process, problem solving and transferable research and training; and outcome based dissemination (technology transfer, community service, scientific publications, and academic seminars) activities. These activities are in line with the stetted missions and vision of the institute cascaded from the expectations of the sector as per the growth and transformation plan of the government.
2. Vision of Textile Chemistry Center of Research and Innovation Center
To become one of the three research and innovation centers in textile chemistry in Africa in 2025 recognized for its problem solving and transferable research to the society.
3. Mission of Textile Chemistry Center of Research and Innovation Center
To create suitable environment by which students and scholars scale-up their academic excellence and potentials by involving in fibre and textile processing research and innovation activities and transferring acquired knowledge and skills in a systematic way to large, medium and small scale industries and community at regional and national level.
4. About Textile Chemistry Specialization
Textile chemistry, as a field of specialization in applied chemistry, deals about the interrelation of chemistry with fibrous and textile materials. Textile chemists are highly specialized chemists who apply the basic principles of chemistry to the understanding of textile materials, for the purpose of functionality and aesthetically modifying them into useful and desirable items. Generally speaking textile chemistry encompasses:
· Polymer science
· Fibre science and technology
· Cleaning of textile materials by wet processing technology
· Coloration of textiles (dyeing and printing technologies) with versatile colors
· Multifunctional finishes for serviceability and functional purpose
Textile chemists must not only have an in-depth understanding of the structure and properties of natural and synthetic fibers and their polymer make-ups, they must also be expert in post treatment chemistries which impart aesthetic and serviceability properties such as dyeability, pleasance , durability as well as be knowledgeable in areas such as recycling, biodegradability and overall environmental concerns.
Textile chemists are expected to work on the following major duties in technical terms:
· Specialist in fibers and cleaning, coloration and finishing of textiles
· Specialist in spectroscopy and chromatography techniques and utilize accordingly for chemical and physical characterization
· Right first time maintenance of chemical laboratory and write technical specifications for instruments thereof
· Plan and conduct quality tests and conduct process control
· Manage dye and process house at industry and pilot level
Textile chemists are hired in organizations involved in applying the principles of chemistry to the understanding of textile materials, and to their functional and aesthetic modification into useful and desirable items. This include textile industries with finishing sector and academia (universities, institutes) and other government organizations in research, regulatory and policy related roles in the sector. Companies that manufacture basic polymers and synthetic fibers, dyeing houses and higher government agencies are particular organizations with due interest in textile chemists.
5. Rationale of Textile Chemistry Research and Innovation Centre
The textile sector is given a priority manufacturing sector as per the growth and transformation plan (GTP) of Ethiopia. Among the various needs to satisfy the GTP requirements is creating specialized professionals and researchers which support the stake holders (Industries and SME) to maximize their involvement in producing quality products and enhance their involvement in export market globally. With this regard it has become necessary to create specialized professions in universities and allied institutes intended to work on specific research and innovation to address the critical demands.
The Ethiopian industries are not producing good quality finished products as expected in the global market. Along with this the total share of export in the sector is not also as per the expectations. To this end it has become necessary to create specialized professionals and researchers in the area of textile chemistry which enhance the quality of finished products and ultimately will be able to maximize the export share. The first and only research innovation center in Ethiopia, TC-RiC is organized under EiTEX to fill these critical ad timely demands.
This rationale is expected to be implemented by conducting effective teaching learning in textile chemistry, problem solving research and innovation in wet processing, focused transferable technology developments in wet processing, community supporting focused training and related activities and enhance scientific publications and other dissemination activities.
Undergraduate: Textile Chemical Process Engineering (B.Sc.), Textile Engineering (B.Sc.), Textile Technology (B.Ed.), Leather Engineering (B.Sc.).
Postgraduate: Textile Technology (PhD), Textile Chemistry (M.Sc.), Fiber Science and Technology (M.Sc.), Leather Product Design and Engineering (M.Sc.), Textile Technology (M.Ed.).
7. Research Groups and Research Status at TC-RiC
Ø Fiber Extraction, Synthesis and Product Development and Enhancement
Ø Study and Implementation of BAT’s in Wet Processing in Textile Industry
Ø Extraction and Synthesis of Chemicals and Dyes for Utilization as Multifunctional Finishes
Ø Development and Adaption of New Wet Processing Technology
The research tasks under TC-RiC are focused on the following broad themes which represent the research group under the centre.
· Indigenous Machine Design (Wet processing and Fiber Extraction and Manufacturing)
· Adaptable Coloration Techniques
· Cotton and other Cellulosic Fibers
· Synthetic Fiber Manufacturing and Characterization
· Multifunctional Finishing
· Implementation of BATs (Best Available Techniques) in Textile Industry
· Innovative Textiles
· Leather Finishing
The specific research works to address the theme of the centre are carried out by LRI teams as per the detailed thematic areas mentioned below.
Fiber Science and Technology Team (research focal areas)
· Extraction, characterization and application of natural fibers
· Synthesis of Man-made fibers
· Cotton production, utilization and quality improvement
Pretreatment and Finishing Technology Team (research focal areas)
· Extraction and Application of Textile Chemicals
· Synthesis of Textile Chemicals
· Process Substitution in Wet Processing
· Advancements in Preparation of Textiles for Wet Processing
· Advancements in Textile Finishing
· Adaptation of Finishing Technology
· Environmental Concerns in Wet Processing of Textile Materials
Leather Technology (research focal areas)
· Improvement of Leather Processing/Production
· Process Substitution in Leather Processing
· Leather Quality Enhancement
· Environmental Concerns in Processing of Leather
· Improvement of Leather Product Design
· Synthetic Leather Production
Textile Coloration Technology Team (research focal areas)
· Best Available Techniques in Coloration
· Modification of Cotton and Dyeability Improvement
· Natural Dyeing
· Cost Reduction Techniques in Coloration of Cotton
· Eco-Friendly Dyeing Processes
· Feasible Solutions for Elimination of Dyeing Problems in Textile Industries
Current Research Group Tasks:
· Fabrication of Knit Dyeing Machine
· Design and Fabrication of T-shirt Printing Machine
· Design and Fabrication of Hank Dyeing Machine
· Yarn Dyeing and Tie Dye Printing
· Diversified Applications of Natural Dyes
· Versatile Screen Printing Techniques
· Extraction and Characterization of Plant Fibers
· Product Development from Non-cotton cellulosic Fibers
· Finished Product Development with Specialty Chemicals
Completed Research Works:
· Bio-scouring of cotton
· Dyes from saw dust for cotton dyeing
· Study of dimensional stability of Ethiopian cotton textiles
· Waste minimization in leather cutting of footwear sectors Extraction and characterization of palm leaf fibers
· Investigating the corn Stover as a non-cotton cellulose source
· Design and development of manual chemical mixer for textile wet processing
· Effect of Using PVA Size in Fabric Manufacturing on Desizing
· Up-gradation techniques for improving leather quality in Ethiopian tanneries
· Alternative Combined Pretreatment Technology with Novel Chemicals
· Study on Utilization of Waste Polymers for Composite Materials
· Extraction of Nettle Fiber and its Application
· Elimination of Shade Variation and Dyeing Defects: a case study
· Dyeability Study on Combination of Natural Dyes from Selected Plants
· Extraction of Natural Dyes from Osyris Quadripitita
· Indigenous Synthesis of Softening and Wetting Agents
· Kosso Plant: Potentiality for Dyeing and Antimicrobial Finishing
· Indigenous Synthesis of Textile Chemicals Study on Foam Dyeing Techniques
· Recycling of Reactive Dyes in Cotton Dyeing
· Reprocessing Cigarette Butts in to Usable Materials
New and Ongoing Research works:
· Bamboo fiber extraction by using natural occurring alkaline
· Design of manual leather skin setting out machine
· Fiber Extraction and Characterization from the Stem of Castor Oil Plant
· Study on assurance of fitting of physical, mechanical and serviceability properties of basic shoe uppers in Ethiopia shoe factories against ISO standard requirements
· Characterization and influence of alkali treatment on physical and chemical properties of sisal fiber
· Development of manual hank mercerization machine
· Mosquito repellent finishing on cotton using garlic (Allium sativum) extract
· Studying cause of selling price declining of slaughtered sheep and goat skins and its effect on quality of leather
· Extraction and characterization of native fiber from pineapple leaf
· Synthesis of natural mordant from maize cob ashes
· Manufacture of non-woven fabric from extracted kapok fibers
· Process integration in dyeing and printing chemicals
· Development of new carpet from palm leaf fiber
· Degumming of Eri silk cocoon
· Dye extraction and silk dyeing
· Paper Recycling and Characterization
· Use of serecin and chitosan as anti-bacterial treatment of cotton fabrics
· Comparison of cellulosic fibers extracted from selected native plants
· Synthesis of fat liquor slaughter house waster & applicant in leather processing
· Extraction of fibers from water hyacinth weeds characterization
· Extraction of starch from banana peel
· Extraction and characterization of kapok fibre
· Design feasibility of pet bottle recycling in Ethiopia for fiber synthesis
· Fabrication of cotton menstrual pad
· Development of super-hydrophilic sanitary towel using ocimum sanctum seeds
· Extraction of hard fibers
Industry and Community Support Grant Projects
· Eco-friendly dyeing process for cotton fabric
· Design and Development of e-procurement website
· Value Addition on Ethiopian Goat Skins
· Bioprocessing of Leather
· Cost-effective dyeing processes for cotton fabric
· Non-cotton Cellulosic Fibers
· Recycling and Utilization of PET for fiber and construction items
· Development of quick dry and shrink resistance 100% cotton table cloth, bed sheets & cotton garments to enhance product versatility and exports of value added finished textiles
· Development of quick dry and shrink resistance 100% cotton table cloth, bed sheets & cotton garments to enhance product versatility and exports of value added finished textiles from Ethiopia
· Indigenous design of jet dyeing machine
Current Research Targets:
· Implementation of best available wet processing techniques in selected Ethiopian Industries
· Substitution of Cotton in textile manufacturing with non-cotton cellulosic fibres
· Enhancement of finished product quality and increase global export share
· Natural dyeing applications
· Design of wet processing machines for small scale enterprises
· Enhancement of productivity of yarn dyeing
· Modernization of Tie dyeing
· Cleaning textiles for women empowerment organizations
· Home dyeing apparatus design for housewife and disables
· Textile learner for high school academia
· Optimization of Caustic Soda Concentration for Causticization of Cotton, Tamene W/ & Chavan RB.
· Desalegne Alemu, Transparent electrodes based on conducting polymers for display applications
· Environmental Concerns in the Textile Industry, Yalewlet & Chavan RB.
· Dr. Lodrick Wangatia, Granch Berehe. Cationization of cotton using cattle hoof and horn for salt-free reactive dyeing.
· Melkie Getnet, Catalyzation of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Polyester by Oxidizing Agents for Surface Modification.
· Adane Haile, Multifunctional properties of cotton fabric treated with chitosan and carboxymethyl chitosan.
· Lodricks Wangatia, A Study of Structure and Properties of Male Silk.
· Lodricks Wangatia, Ms. Kidist Tadese and Ms. Senelesile Moyo.Mango Bark Mordant for Dyeing Cotton with Natural Dye: Fully Eco-Friendly Natural Dyeing.
· Melkie Getnet, Catalyzation of Alkaline Hydrolysis of Polyester by Oxidizing Agents for Surface Modification.
- Application of Ultrasound in the Pretreatment of Cotton Fabric, Cellulose Chemistry and Technology.
- Development of Antimicrobial Textiles Using Zinc Pyrithione, Research Journal of Textile and Apparel.
- Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton with Extracts of Solanum Incanum Fruit, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology.
- A study on Baby Diaper with Indigenous-Absorbent-Core material in Ethiopian context, International Journal of Modern Science and Technology.
- Removal of Residual Hydrogen Peroxide in Cotton Bleaching using Catalase Enzyme, International Journal of Industrial Engineering.
- Characterization of new natural Cellulosic Fiber Urera hypselodendron Plant for Technical Textile Application, International Journal of Modern Science and Technology.
- Extraction and Optimization of Natural Dye from Hambo Hambo Plant Used for Coloration of Tanned Leather Materials, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering.
- Extraction and Characterization of Natural Cellulosic Fibers from Carissa Edulise Plant Stems, International Journal of Modern Science and Technology.
- Modification of Epoxy Resin with Reactive End-Capped Carboxylic Imide Oligomer for Manufacture of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composite, International Journal of Composite Materials.
- Practical Analysis of Bonding Failure Reasons in Footwear Production, International Journal of Current Research.
- Nanofinishing of Textiles for Sportswear, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development.
- Effect of Maturity on Fundamental Properties of Nettle Fibers, Journal of Textile and Fashion Technology
- Extraction of Natural Dye from Osyris Quadripartita and Application in Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics, Journal of Textile Engineering & Fashion Technology.
- Methods of Assessing the Performance Characteristics of Sportswear, International Journal of Modern Science and Technology.
- Anionic Dyeability of Polyester Fabric by Chemical Surface Modification, International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Science.
- Extraction and Characterization of Ethiopian Palm Leaf Fibers, Research Journal of Textile and Apparel.
- Rotich K. Gideon (Dr.) & Doreen Itenyo , Modification of Epoxy Resin with Reactive End-Capped Carboxylic Imide Oligomer for Manufacture of Glass-Fiber Reinforced Composite, International Journal of Composite Materials 2017; 7(4): 120-126.
- Saminathan Ratnapandian & Taame Birhanu, Extraction and Optimization of Natural Dye from Hambo Hambo (Cassia singueana) Plant Used for Coloration of Tanned Leather Materials, Advances in Materials Science and Engineering, Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7516409.
- Durairaj Dhanapal, Practical Analysis of Bonding Failure Reasons in Footwear Production, International Journal of Current Research, Volume 09, Issue 06, Page no.53394, 30.06.2017.
- Anil Kumar Jain, Addisu Ferede Tesema, (2017) "Development of antimicrobial textiles using zinc pyrithione", Research Journal of Textile and Apparel, Vol. 21 Issue: 3, pp.188-202.
- Tadele A., Separation and Characterization of Ethiopian Origin Nettle Fiber.
- Badmaw A., Ultrasound Application to Dyeing of Cotton Fabrics with Reactive Dyes.
- Grdion. R., Slamu T., Comparative Study of Three Different Natural Starches on Performance Properties of Sized Cotton Yarn.
- Durairaj Dhanapal, Gebrehiwot Asfaha and Tesfay Geremaryam, Application of TPM -Tools to Improve Overall Productivity of Closing Line in Footwear Industry.
- Lodricks W. & Granch. B. Cationization of Cotton Using Cattle Hoof and Horn for Salt-Free Reactive Dyeing.
- D. Dhanapal, K.Raja Kannan and Gebrehiwot Asfah, PU Memory Foam for Application as Insole in Therapeutic Footwear for Patients with Diabetes.
- Antimicrobial Finishing of Cotton with Extracts of Solanum Incanum Fruit, Kalkidan Tadesse and Dr. G.Nalankilli, International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology,Vol.4, No. 8, pp 2204-2210, 2017.
- Anionic Dyeability of Polyester Fabric by Chemical Surface Modification, Beyene Dumecha and Nalankilli. G, International Journal of Modern Trends in Engineering and Science, Vol.4, No.9, pp3-14, 2017.
- Nanofinishing of Textiles for Sportswear, Nalankilli Govindan and Kanjana Subramanian, International Journal for Scientific Research & Development, Vol. 5, No. 07, pp32-36, 2017.
- Separation and Characterization of Ethiopian Origin Nettle Fiber, International Journal of Engineering Research and Technology, Vol. 5 Issue 03, March-2016.
· Salt free reactive dyeing of cotton fabric using chitosan extracted from fish scales
· Optimization of citric acid and fibroin solution as crease resistance for cotton fabrics
· Female foot planter pressure problems in high heel fashion footwear
· Studies on dyeing kinetics using ultrasonic energy on reactive dye-cotton fiber system
· Analysis of footwear slip resistance in water and oil conditioned floor tiles
· Study and comparison of foot planter pressure on PU viscoelastic foam and EVA insole materials
· A Review –Special recommendation footwear for older peoples at risk of falling injuries
· Practical Analysis of Adhesives bonding failure reasons in footwear production
· Leather Cutting and wastage Minimization techniques in Footwear industry
· Extraction of Fibers from Yucca Pant
· Study, characterization and comparison of selected course natural fibers for composite reinforcements
· Extraction and Characterization of Ethiopian Palm Leaf Fiber
· Extraction and characterization of fibers from corn husks
· Physical and mechanical properties of non-woven composite panel made from reclaimed fibers
· Reinforcement of recycled PET bottles with natural fibers for composite applications.
8. Knowledge Exchange
List of seminars by TC-RiC staff (Sample)
a) Thermal Analysis of Fibers
c) Dyeing Techniques for Bast Fibers
d) NMR Spectroscopy and it Applications
e) UV-Spectroscopy and its Applications
f) Textile Bio-composites
g) Smart Textiles Developments
h) Self Sustaining Structures
i) Organic Cotton in Ethiopia
j) Engineered textiles
k) Nano-technology application in textile
l) Resistance to Change
m) Textile Composites
n) Nanotechnology: Applications in textiles
Seminars coming soon (Sample)
a) APEO: Concerns and Regulations
b) OEKO TEX Standards
c) Ultrasonic dyeing
d) Garment Dyeing
e) Naturally Colored Cotton
f) Medical Textiles
g) Selected Topics in Technical Textiles
h) Atomic Force Microscopy in Textiles
i) Selected Topics in Smart Textiles
j) Textile Finishing: World Scenario
k) The status of organic cotton
l) Significance and development of naturally colored cotton
m) Best Available wet processing techniques (industry support)
n) Right First Time Dyeing
o) Development of Printing Thickeners
q) Polymer technology
r) New techniques in fiber testing and characterization
s) Spectroscopy techniques: Applications in textiles
t) New Finishing Technologies
u) Thermal characterizations and significance in textile characterization
a) Recycling of cotton textiles
b) Thermal comfort analysis of finished cotton fabrics in clothing industries
c) Natural Dyes & their properties
d) Perfume finishing of Textiles
e) Introducing New technology for Jute
f) Fiber extraction from Carisa Edulise
g) Pretreatment and finishing of textile by Plasma Technology
h) Enzymatic Dyeing of Textiles
List of trainings by TC-RiC
a) Fiber Identification
b) Textile Wet Processing Machines
c) CCM (Computer color matching)
d) Spectroscopy Applications (FTIR, UV and AS techniques)
e) Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer
f) Extraction Techniques
g) Elemental analysis
h) Effluent characterization
i) Advanced Microscopes and Imaging Techniques
j) Thermal Analysis of Polymers and Fibers (DSC, TGA, DMA techniques)
k) Process Control in Dyeing, Printing and Finishing
l) Yarn Dyeing
m) Shade and Recipe Prediction
n) Screen Printing
o) Kaizen Principles and Implementation
p) Lab-Management System
q) Light fastness testing
r) Perspirometer and rubbing fastness testing
s) Conditioning of textile materials
· T-shirt and Fabric printing
· Fiber identification and testing
· Industrial Pilot Plant Production of Dyed Goods
· Fiber structure analysis
· Polymer and fiber Characterization
· Dye testing
· Color analysis
· Computer color matching
· Color fastness and fading measurement
· Tie-dyeing and design production on fabrics and clothes
· Transfer and sticker printing on different products
The textile chemistry center of research and innovation has variety of instruments arranged in eight laboratories and also standard stores for chemicals and fabrics and other supplies. Most of the instruments are from highly recognized commercial suppliers including PerkinElmer, textech, SDL and other. The laboratories arranged as per KAIZEN principles and the usage and utilization of resources in each lab is governed by the laboratory management system.
In addition to the well equipped laboratories with high grade instruments we have integrated workshop as a pilot plant which is equipped with different machines for production of pretreated, dyed and finished goods in mass production.
11. Textile Chemistry research and innovation Center Staff Profile